A rose, a fresh cup of coffee, a wood fire. These are only three of the roughly 1 trillion scents that the human nose and brain are capable of distinguishing from each other, according to a new study. Researchers had previously estimated that humans could sense only about 10,000 odors but the number had never been explicitly tested before.“People have been talked into this idea that humans are bad at detecting smells,” says neurobiologist Leslie Vosshall of Rockefeller University in New York City, who led the new work. “So these findings should give the whole human race a confidence boost.”Humans detect smells by inhaling air that contains odor molecules, which then bind to receptors inside the nose, relaying messages to the brain. Most scents are composed of many odorants; a whiff of chocolate, for example, is made up of hundreds of different odor molecules. Understanding how people process the complex information contained in scents—or memories of smells—offers a window into how the human brain functions.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Vosshall says she and others in the field had long guessed that the number of detectable scents often cited in the literature, based on rough calculations made in the 1920s of the known groups and ranges of smells—claiming that humans could distinguish 10,000 odors—was way off. So her lab decided to test it once and for all. They took 128 odor molecules that represented a wide range of smells and started combining them into unique mixtures containing 10, 20, or 30 different components. Then, they recruited volunteers from the community, aged 20 to 48, to start sniffing the mixtures. “The people we invited to do this study were not professionals; they were not wine tasters or perfumers,” Vosshall says.Each volunteer was given three smell-containing vials at a time—two that were identical and one that was a slightly different mixture—and then was asked which was the odd one out. On average, if the components varied by more than 50%, the scientists found, people could distinguish the smells as different. When Vosshall’s team crunched these numbers, extrapolating how many different combinations of the 128 odorants an average person could differentiate, they arrived at an average of 1 trillion smells.Individual performance, however, varied, they report online today in Science. The researchers calculated that the least successful smeller in the study would be able to smell only 80 million unique scents. And the best performer had a far more sensitive sense of smell, likely able to distinguish more than a thousand trillion odors.The ability to distinguish a trillion scents from one another when they’re paired up, though, doesn’t mean that humans can identify a trillion different scents, says neurologist Jay Gottfried of the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. “Even if humans can distinguish that many odors based on these projected mixtures, I don’t know if there are really 1 trillion unique odors in the world that we would need to be discriminating.”Gottfried adds, however, that the study brings up interesting questions regarding how complex smells are sensed by the nose and brain. “In general, it highlights a growing interest in how combinations of odors—rather than single odor molecules at a time—are sensed and processed.”Vosshall and her colleagues are pursuing some of these questions, including whether certain combinations of odors are indistinguishable despite being very different at a molecular level. But for now, she just hopes the new findings encourage people to take another sniff at the world around them.“Knowing we have these capabilities, I hope people, as they go about their business, start saying, ‘Hey, I can smell all these things.’ Maybe the companies that make scented products will start making greater use of the human capacity and develop cleaners and perfumes with new, more interesting scents,” she says. “Maybe we’re going to start using those corners of our smell capacity that have just not been exercised lately.”
Asian News International New DelhiMarch 19, 2019UPDATED: March 19, 2019 18:47 IST Royal Challengers Bangalore have the lowest total in the history of IPL (BCCI Photo)The Indian Premier League is the most popular T20 tournament in the world and every cricketer wants to be a part of this extravaganza. As the 12th edition of the tournament begins from March 23, here’s a look at the most embarrassing records in the league over the years.Lowest Team Score in IPL: Royal Challengers Banglore who are widely regarded as the best-batting lineup in the tournament, scripted the worst ever team total in the history of the tournament.The team was bundled out for a paltry total of just 49 runs by the Kolkata Knight Riders in a group stage encounter in the 2017 edition at Eden Gardens, Kolkata.RCB were chasing a target of 132 runs, but no batsman was able to reach double figures and the team was bowled out under ten overs.Most extras bowled in a match: Deccan Chargers hold this record as they conceded the most number of extras (28) in a match against KKR in the year 2008.Most runs conceded in a spell: Ishant Sharma holds this unwanted record as he conceded 66 runs in his four overs against Chennai Super Kings. He was playing for Sunrisers Hyderabad when he gave away this many runs.Most number of ducks in IPL: Harbhajan Singh holds the record as he has been bowled out without troubling the score for 13 number of times.Most number of losses for a team in IPL: When it comes to losing matches, Delhi Daredevils come to the forefront as they have lost a record number of 91 matches in eleven seasons.advertisementChennai Super Kings will take on Royal Challengers Banglore in the opening match of IPL on Saturday, March 23.Also Read | IPL 2019 full schedules for 56 league matches from March 23 to May 5Also Read | Indian Premier League: List of winners from 2008-2018Also Read | 2019 Indian Premier League squads: Full listFor sports news, updates, live scores and cricket fixtures, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for Sports news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Tags :Follow IPL 2019Follow worst recordsFollow IPL historyFollow Royal Challengers BangaloreFollow Chennai Super KingsFollow Rajasthan RoyalsFollow Kolkata Knight RidersFollow Delhi CapitalsFollow Mumbai IndiansFollow Sunrisers HyderabadFollow Kings XI PunjabFollow DCFollow RRFollow KXIPFollow KKRFollow SRHFollow CSKFollow RCBFollow MI Most embarrassing records in IPL so farThe 11 editions of the Indian Premier League have seen a lot of records been broken but here are a few those make their owner’s proud.advertisement
zoom South Korean logistics company Hyundai Glovis has inked a long-term crude oil shipping contract with compatriot oil refiner GS Caltex. Under the deal signed on December 8, 2017, Hyundai Glovis will transport crude oil from Saudi Arabia and other countries from that region to Korea, the company announced on Korea Exchange.As informed, the deal covers the period from October 1, 2019, to September 30, 2029.The contract is worth KRW 209.8 billion (around USD 190.9 million), subject to change.In line with the newly signed contract, the company plans to order a 300,000 dwt very large crude carrier (VLCC) at a domestic shipyard. The newbuilding would be delivered until the start of the contract with GS Caltex, local media reported.Hyundai Glovis currently operates a fleet of more than 90 ships, including pure car and truck carriers (PCTCs), bulkers and tankers.World Maritime News Staff
WASHINGTON — A Canadian reader of U.S. news reports about last week’s trade talks with China could be forgiven for wondering: what the heck happened to Huawei?After all, the week began with the U.S. Department of Justice unsealing two damning indictments against the Chinese tech giant, including one that names chief financial officer and telecom scion Meng Wanzhou, whose arrest in Vancouver two months ago dragged Canada into an escalating battle of ideologies between the two largest economies in the world.And yet two days later, as President Donald Trump and Vice Premier Liu He sat across from each other in the Oval Office after two days of high-level, high-stakes trade talks, the eyebrow-raising U.S. allegations of fraud, conspiracy and obstruction of justice against one of the world’s fastest-growing telecommunications firms elicited barely a mention.“We haven’t discussed that yet,” Trump said Thursday when asked if Huawei had come up during the talks. “It will be, but it hasn’t been discussed yet.“That, actually — as big as it might seem — is very small compared to the overall deal.”Geopolitical observers and trade analysts alike aren’t buying it.When Trump talks trade, America’s transactional, deal-hungry president tends to be less focused on bigger-picture issues than the messages he can sell to his supporters. Thursday’s Oval Office exercise, for instance, was all about radiating mutual goodwill — like when Liu disclosed, seemingly to the surprise of Trump’s aides, that China would buy five million tons of American soybeans.“Wow,” said Trump, visibly impressed. “That’s a lot of soybeans.”Not really; China used to buy six times that every year from the U.S., which produced about 138 million tons of soybeans in 2018. Tariffs changed all that. But the president is in dire need of a political win in short order on trade with China, which he won’t get by talking publicly about what’s really going on — a broader, multi-pronged, long-term American effort to blunt its economic, geopolitical and military might.“There’s a lot of tension within the U.S. administration about China policy,” said David Dollar, a senior fellow in foreign policy, global economy and development at the Brookings Institution’s John L. Thornton China Center in Washington.“One school of thought is, ‘This is a Communist dictatorship, it’s a potential threat to the U.S., we can’t get along with this country’ — ‘decouple’ is the word they use. To the extent they’re gaining ascendancy, then you don’t want a trade deal. You just want to slap on big tariffs, you want to penalize Chinese companies, Chinese citizens, and reduce the economic relationship.“Then there are other members of the administration who — I think correctly — understand there’s a lot of benefit in U.S.-China economic exchange, and they would like to improve the terms of that and in some sense deal with these security issues, but ringfence them so that other economic exchange can go on.”Canada shares that latter approach, a delicate high-wire act made all the more awkward by the swirling diplomatic updrafts of Meng’s Dec. 1 arrest and former ambassador John McCallum’s public assessments of her chances in court.It would be “naive in the extreme” to think that the Huawei controversy can be divorced from the U.S.-China trade discussion, said Wesley Wark, a University of Ottawa professor who specializes in matters of national security and foreign relations.“Huawei has been made exhibit No. 1 in a China-U.S. trade war and struggle for technological supremacy, and the criminal indictments are just kind of on the ground floor,” he said.China is determined to diminish U.S. influence and extend its own economic, political and military reach around the world with “a distinctly Chinese fusion of strongman autocracy and a form of Western-style capitalism,” Dan Coats, the U.S. director of national intelligence, warned last week in a briefing with the Senate intelligence committee.Trump’s trade and economic emissaries will resume talks in Beijing later this month, and the president himself will sit down with counterpart Xi Jinping before March 1, when U.S. tariffs on some $200-billion worth of Chinese goods are scheduled to jump to 25 per cent. It will be during those presidential talks where Huawei returns to the agenda, observers say.Trump used the all-caps word “comprehensive” in a string of tweets last week about his high hopes for a trade deal with China — a sentiment he repeated Sunday in an interview with CBS’s “Face the Nation.”“No two leaders of this country and China have ever been closer than I am with President Xi,” the president said. “We have a good chance to make a deal … and if there is a deal, it’s going to be a real deal. It’s not going to be a stopgap.”That means Huawei and help with North Korea more than it does more soybeans, said Dan Ujczo, a trade lawyer and Canada-U.S. specialist with Dickinson Wright in Columbus, Ohio. “Huawei is what it’s all about at the end of the day,” Ujczo said. “That’s what comprehensive means. The meeting between the two leaders — trade will just be one of the three major components, with Huawei being probably at the top of the list and North Korea right after.”Trade, Huawei and the world’s broader concerns about China’s at-all-costs global ambitions are closely intertwined components of the U.S. strategy, said Wark. Whether that strategy will work is another question. “I think it’s a very aggressive American policy that has to be rooted in an assumption that it’s possible to change Chinese behaviour through force. That critical assumption — that you can force, in a relatively short time frame, a change in Chinese behaviour through these tactics — that’s the critical thing that we should be speculating about: is this a good policy? “Many people would argue it doesn’t have a chance in hell. But lots of voices need to weigh in on that one.”James McCarten, The Canadian Press
There are some huge opportunities for improvements in moving enterprise services to the infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) cloud, but there are some equally daunting challenges — both technical and operational. IaaS ChallengesHowever, IaaS is not without its challenges. As already mentioned, the IT operations team will need to embark on some significant professional development, but there are some technical challenges too. Dedicated vs. Shared Cloud Voice Services Darin Ward October 03, 2019 When moving voice to the cloud, many service providers tout their dedicated solutions. But is “dedicated” all that it’s cracked up to be? Hyping Up Hybrid: Making the Case Ryan Daily September 05, 2019 With the race to the cloud heating up, some enterprises aren’t dashing to the finish line with the same intensity – opting instead for a “hybrid” pace. These multitenant subscription-based services vary between providers but often include basic services like DNS, systems logging, and monitoring. Some offer expanded functionality like robust authentication, communications, database, IoT, and artificial intelligence (AI) systems (to name a few). The basic services will simplify data center deployment, and the expanded services can be exploited for improved operations throughout the organization. To improve operations, agility, and scalability, there are three most important differences that enterprises can take advantage of: Are We Heading for Cloud in a Box? Tom Nolle September 26, 2019 As the cloud craze continues, enterprises are looking for simplified “in a box” cloud solutions to address their communication and collaboration needs. 2. Application Compatibility: The fundamental change in design to use parallelized network systems for capacity will also require changes at the application level. Applications can no longer rely on session state to maintain the unique experience for an end user. Applications must store state independently from network sessions, which may require fundamental changes to applications and databases. This change could enable geo-redundancy of application services. 5 Ways Cloud UCC Changed the Workforce Mark Roberts September 16, 2019 The UCC digital renaissance has come and stayed. Now, enterprises are fine tuning their networks to better engage employees and customers. Comparing IaaS and a private data center is fairly difficult in itself. There are more differences than there are similarities. The similarities essentially end after you refer to them both as virtual environments. An argument could be made that this is not even similar, as most private data centers only virtualize the compute and storage, whereas the major IaaS providers virtualize nearly everything, including services, network, and the data center itself. Infrastructure as code (IaC) is the process of managing and provisioning systems using either scripts or declarative definitions, rather than manual interactive processes. The big three IaaS vendors provide a Web interface to facilitate the development of the scripts, but it’s the scripts that set up and configure the systems. Tightly coupled and usually fully integrated is the concept of software-defined networking (SDN). SDN is an approach to managing and provisioning network configuration and data flows, replacing traditional network functionality. The big three IaaS providers have developed their own SDN implementations that function differently but offer some significantly new functionality. The SDN implementations are a complete recreation of the network stack that allows for new forms of expanded redundancy with discreet segmentation of networks in a multitenant environment. “SCTC Perspectives” is written by members of the Society of Communications Technology Consultants, an international organization of independent information and communications technology professionals serving clients in all business sectors and government worldwide.Tags:Best PracticesIaaSAmazonMicrosoftGooglepublic cloudCloud CommunicationsConsultant PerspectivesDeployment ModelsEnterprise NetworkingHosted CommunicationsMonitoring, Management and SecurityOrganization & ManagementSCTCSecurity Articles You Might Like 5 Steps for A Seamless Contact Center Cloud Migration Elizabeth Magill September 09, 2019 Ensuring that IT and business teams are on the same page before, during, and after the process is key to a successful migration. See All in Cloud Communications » Murphy_IaaS_774.png Multitenant services is perhaps the biggest difference, with the most potential for operational efficiencies. As the big three IaaS providers have matured their services, they have developed a wide range of multitenant services that can be incorporated into enterprise operations. These services are clustered, highly available, fully segregated between tenants, and can provide significant savings to IT operations. The IT industry is seeing a fundamental shift to the public cloud providers to enable agility and scalability. Don’t get caught up in the industry hype. Step back and develop a well-thought-out approach to the migration and make sure your management and operations teams understand the potential opportunities and challenges. These multitenant services are made possible by the new SDN and IaC technologies that allow them to be segmented and isolated between tenants. Enterprises can take advantage of operational efficiency gains from these services, as they can be dynamically deployed and scaled, and have low operations overhead, as new features, patching, and upgrades are included in the services. Demand for public cloud infrastructure, or IaaS, is expected to grow 36.8% in 2018, according to Gartner. IaaS refers to the basic computing, networking, and storage services supplied by the big three providers: Amazon, Microsoft, and Google. The cloud allows your infrastructure to scale dynamically but requires a fundamentally different approach than premises-based infrastructure. You cannot do everything the same as you did in a private data center. 3. Security: A common myth with respect the IaaS public cloud is that security is taken care of by the cloud provider. The major cloud providers do provide tools for security, but the tools are relatively simplistic in comparison to the next-generation security tools being deployed in many private data centers, particularly with respect to perimeter security (firewalls). Many of the next-generation firewall providers have developed firewall virtual appliances that can be incorporated into the public cloud provider’s infrastructure to improve perimeter security. Keep in mind that these systems also need to be parallelized with multiple instances. The security upside is that most of the cloud IaaS providers have other security tool sets, such as security logging and monitoring capabilities, included or available in the platform. There are also new security providers that are designing fresh approaches to security that take advantage of the parallelized nature of the cloud data centers. Many of these are early stages but should be watched as they mature, as they may offer some significant opportunities. sctcperspective_Small.png The most significant challenges will likely be: IT operations can take this a step further and incorporate automation with these scripts to programmatically grow or shrink the enterprise infrastructure on demand. A further step down this road would allow IT operations to prepare a series of scripts that could deploy all of the systems required to run the company. An added benefit is that the big three IaaS providers allow you to extend this concept across multiple physical data centers for geo-redundancy. This should improve disaster recovery (DR) and simplify many IT aspects of business continuity plans (BCP). 1. Provisioning of Network Capacity: The major cloud providers can provide good network performance up to about 1Gbps per individual data path. This is in stark contrast to the 100+Gbps data paths private data centers have available through hardware-based networking. The solution is to use the parallel connection stream capabilities of SDN. This requires the scalable use of parallel load balancers, firewalls, and server instances to deploy networks in a parallel fashion. These differences require your IT operations team to have a very different approach and skill sets, but at the same time, IaaS opens the door for some significant improvements to operational efficiencies and costs. Zeroing in on OpportunitiesAt first glance, moving to IaaS may not sound like a significant advantage to an organization. However, the move presents a significant opportunity for operational improvements. Most importantly, it will allow IT operations staff to deploy systems in a very repeatable way. A simple example: For a system that requires more than one Web server to handle the organization’s capacity requirements, multiple identical Web servers can be deployed by simply re-running the same script. cloudtechnology_774.png Infrastructure as CodeSoftware-Defined NetworkingMultitenant ServicesThese differences will require IT operations teams to step back and develop a well-thought-out design and approach. Log in or register to post comments IaaS Conceptual Design
“This is the first time the international community has endowed itself with such a comprehensive standard-setting instrument, elevating cultural diversity to the rank of ‘common heritage of humanity – as necessary for the human race as bio-diversity in the natural realm’ – and makes its protection an ethical imperative, inseparable from respect for human dignity,” said UNESCO Director-General Koïchiro Matsuura. The text was adopted by acclamation on 2 November, the last day of UNESCO’s 31st General Conference in Paris. Stressing his hope that the new instrument would “one day acquire as much force as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” Mr. Matsuura said the Declaration reaffirmed the conviction by UNESCO members that intercultural dialogue was the best guarantee of peace, thus categorically rejecting the idea that conflicts between cultures and civilizations were inevitable.During their annual session, UNESCO members also adopted a Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, banning the pillaging of ancient shipwrecks and sunken archaeological sites for commercial exploitation. In dealing with heritage preservation, the Conference authorized UNESCO to pursue its work for the protection and enhancement of intangible cultural heritage, including linguistic heritage. It requested UNESCO to work on the drafting of a standard-setting instrument on the protection of threatened cultures. The participants asked UNESCO to prepare a draft declaration against the intentional destruction of cultural heritage aimed at preventing crimes such as the demolition by the Taliban of the giant Buddha statues of Bamiyan. The aim of the Declaration would be to reinforce provisions contained in existing international cultural heritage conventions. The General Conference endorsed the call by Director-General Matsuura for the launch, under the auspices of UNESCO, of an international effort to safeguard the heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem, including the setting up of a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the city’s heritage.
Building on the momentum of a United States-hosted conference on global literacy this week, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) will organize a series of high-level regional conferences during 2007 and 2008.“These conferences will address specific regional challenges in literacy with the aim of building cooperation among stakeholders and mobilizing resources for concrete interventions at country level,” UNESCO Director-General Koïchiro Matsuura said.This week’s White House Conference on Global Literacy, organized and hosted by US First Lady Laura Bush in her capacity as Honorary Ambassador of the UN Literacy Decade (2003-2012), was an outstanding success that will inject “vital new momentum into the drive for literacy worldwide,” he added. Mrs. Bush announced that the US would contribute $1 million to the Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP), a UNESCO initiative to improve the accuracy of global data on literacy. “Improved monitoring will be absolutely essential to our success in meeting international literacy targets,” Mr. Matsuura said. The first of the regional Literacy Conferences, for the Arab region, will be hosted in Qatar from 12 to 14 March, 2007, by Sheikha Mozah Bint Nasser al Missned, UNESCO Special Envoy for Basic and Higher Education. Azerbaijan, Mali and Costa Rica will also host regional conferences.
On Thursday, Williams beat Barbora Strycova, a 33-year-old who had never reached a Grand Slam singles semifinal. Strycova, who has a fine track record at doubles, reaching the semifinals in each major event, couldn’t control Williams, who won 6-1, 6-2.But Williams hasn’t played anyone like the 27-year-old Halep. She’s great at receiving serves and, at times, pouncing on them, too. Halep has won 53 percent of return points — and that includes first and second serves. Williams, known as an all-time returner, has won 43 percent.Halep also sounds eager and hungry. “I feel stronger mentally facing her,” she said. “We will see what is going to happen.”Williams has yet to play against a top 15 player in this tournament. According to the WTA, Williams’s opponents so far had an average rank of 75.2, and only two of them were seeded (No. 30 Carla Suarez Navarro in the fourth round and No. 18 Julia Goerges in the third). A similar scenario unfolded a year ago, when Williams coasted to the finals with her average opponent ranked even lower at 80, until she faced Angelique Kerber in the final. Kerber, who has an attacking style similar to Halep’s, beat Williams 6-3, 6-3.Williams needs to serve as well as possible to tie Court’s record, and so far, her serve has seemed vulnerable. Throughout the event, Williams has won 54.2 percent of second-serve points, which is solid and in line with her career numbers at Wimbledon. But the first serve counts the most, and Williams has not nearly been her best. She has won 74 percent of her first serves in her six matches. That’s lower than for all of her Wimbledon wins; her previous low at a Wimbledon in which she won was 75.8 percent in 2003. Her share of first serves won was much higher for her most recent match, at 89 percent, so perhaps she has started to find her footing.At her best, Williams’s serves have been efficient and brutal. In 2010, she won 87.5 percent of the points for which she landed her first serve, the highest at Wimbledon in her career. (That year, Williams hit 23.5 percent of her total points served as aces.) Williams didn’t lose a set that year (she also lost no sets in 2002). In 2012, Williams had stats nearly as impressive, hitting 20.9 percent of her total points served as aces. That’s the only time Williams hit more than 100 serves as aces (102 in all) at Wimbledon.Williams has played Halep 11 times, including three at a Slam. Halep has won just once, in 2014. But she played Williams close at the Australian Open this year and won a set from her in the 2011 Wimbledon, back in their first matchup. Williams knows this will be her biggest test, and she knows that Halep is ready.“The biggest key with our matches is the loss that I had. I never forgot it. She played unbelievable,” Williams said. “That makes me know that level she played at, she can get there again. So I have to be better than that.” With one more win at Wimbledon, Serena Williams would tie Margaret Court, the only player in history with 24 Grand Slam singles titles. In Saturday’s final, the 37-year-old Williams will battle Simona Halep, who won the French Open last year but has never won a Wimbledon title. Williams appears to have shaken off the rust of earlier this season and seems, at last, to have returned to her perch as the most dominant player in the history of tennis.There’s just one problem: Williams’s incredible serve is still a little shaky.“I don’t know if I’ve had my best serves this tournament,” Williams said. “I’m just now starting to use my legs again.”
OSU redshirt senior Johnni DiJulius competes in a match against Nebraska on Jan. 17.Credit: Courtesy of OSUThe last dual meet of the season has arrived for the Ohio State wrestling team, and all eyes will be on how the Buckeyes handle their last opponent on the regular-season schedule.No. 10 OSU (9-3, 6-2) returns to Columbus after a three-week stint of away meets, where it is set to face Wisconsin (2-6, 1-4) on Friday at 7 p.m. After a grueling and taxing matchup with No. 1 Penn State last Friday, which resulted in a 24-14 loss, the Buckeyes will be looking to end on a high note against the Badgers. The two teams did not meet last year during the season, but Wisconsin picked up the victory in their last bout with OSU. The all-time series has the Badgers ahead 29-19-1.Despite the Badgers’ rough 2015-16 campaign, OSU coach Tom Ryan said he has the utmost respect for the program.Not only does this match mark the last regular-season dual meet of the year for the Buckeyes, but also the final time nine seniors will share that experience.Although the team will be back in Columbus to host a National Wrestling Coaches Association National Duals Championships Series match, the outgoing seniors will be honored against Wisconsin for their careers at OSU.Notable seniors who will be honored are Kenny Courts, Mark Martin, Hunter Stieber and Johnni DiJulius.“Obviously it means a lot but it’s more like a shocker,” DiJulius said. “I’m in disbelief because I’m a senior. When I was a freshman watching senior night, I thought to myself I had all the time in the world, but it goes by so quick.”Courts, Stieber and DiJulius all began their journey as freshman in 2011, and will get to round out their careers together on the mat. Ryan isn’t as worried about the box score for his outgoing wrestlers against Wisconsin as much as his is about the Buckeyes giving it their all. “In any sport, we get so caught up in winning and losing, and that can be so stifling,” Ryan said. “You do not control winning and losing. You control effort.”Effort has been a point of emphasis for Ryan and the team for years.There is a strong sense of respect held by the OSU coaching staff and wrestlers toward a program like Wisconsin’s. “(Wisconsin) is a fully funded Big Ten team, with great tradition there,” Ryan said. “They’ve got a great head coach in Barry (Davis). He was an Olympian.”Wisconsin brings in two ranked wrestlers with No. 7 Ryan Taylor at 133 pounds and No. 3 Isaac Jordan at 165 pounds. The match at 165 pounds will be watched for more than just a bout between two wrestlers with the top five nationally. It will also be watched for the family matchup. Redshirt sophomore Bo Jordan will be facing his cousin from Wisconsin at 165. The two met last season in the Big Ten championships, where Isaac Jordan earned a 3-2 victory. “The big one is at (165 pounds),” Ryan said. “Not only are they ranked two and three in the country, but they’re first cousins. That adds an element you don’t want to seep into it.” Ryan was referring to the extra emotional implication of a match between family. He also cited that in order for Bo Jordan to succeed, he must focus solely on wrestling, and not who he stares down before the opening whistle.DiJulius will be facing the other ranked opponent on Wisconsin’s roster in Taylor. He said he wants to use a quality opponent like Taylor to correct some wrongs from this season.“I just want to make sure I’m wrestling the way I want to wrestle at the national tournament,” DiJulius said. “This season I haven’t done a great job at winning the third period and scoring enough points in the third.”Wisconsin nearly emerged with an upset in its previous match against now-No. 18 Minnesota but dropped the dual meet 17-16. Against Wisconsin, all the starters from the team are expected to make an appearance. “We will have a full lineup against Wisconsin for the first time (this season),” Ryan said.Big venues aheadThe settings for the Big Ten and NCAA championships will be memorable environments, as the Buckeyes are slated to travel to Carver-Hawkeye Arena and Madison Square Garden, respectively. After the rowdy, sold-out Bryce Jordan Center in its previous match, Ryan said OSU feels prepared for crowds that will flock to Iowa City, Iowa, and New York City.“The environment is going to be every bit as crazy as it was at Penn State,” Ryan said.Carver-Hawkeye Arena holds more than 15,000 people, while Madison Square Garden holds over 18,000.After WisconsinAt the conclusion of the next match, OSU will get ready to play host to an NCWA National Duals match. The pairing will be announced on Sunday, as well as the time.
HSV HandballOrlen Wisla PlockPascal Hens HSV Handball will play without Pascal Hens at “Wild Card” tournament of VELUX EHF Champions League. HSV’s captain and former German NT player is injured at Bundesliga’s game against SC Magdeburg last Tuesday and won’t be able to help his team-mates in the battle for the place at European elite competition. His shoulder needs special treatment, so all the pressure will be on Blazenko Lackovic, who share the left back position with Hens.HSV Handball plays against Orlen Wisla Plock in the first semi-finals. In the second match will play Saint Raphael and Cimos Koper. ← Previous Story Guillaume Joli joins Dunkerque Next Story → RK Metalurg “lost” the first right back Milan Vucicevic!
US SECRETARY OF State Hillary Clinton is expected to be among over 50 foreign ministers from states who are members the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) visiting in Dublin in December.The two-day meeting on the 6 and 7 December – after the Budget on 5 December – at Dublin Castle will be the biggest ever gathering of foreign ministers in Ireland and the culmination of the country’s year chairing the organisation.As the largest intergovernmental organisation focusing on security, the organisation seeks to promote human rights, press freedom, fair elections and arms control.It has 56 member states from North America, Europe and Asia as well as a dozen countries who are considered ‘partners in co-operation’.Almost all of the 56 member states are expected to be represented at the Dublin Castle summit which will be hosted by Tánaiste and Foreign Affairs Minister Eamon Gilmore who is the chairman-in-office of the OSCE.Hillary Clinton, in what could be one of her last engagements as US Secretary of State, is expected to be among those visiting.The Department of Foreign Affairs said that she indicated her intention to visit Ireland in December when she met with Gilmore at the UN General Assembly in New York last week.Read: ‘The outcome was never in doubt,’ says Irish TD who observed Russian voteRead: ‘Internet freedom’ is Government priority, Gilmore tells UN
Tweet thisShare on FacebookEmail this article Cavani points to the sky after scoring his 100th PSG goal. Thursday 1 Dec 2016, 12:00 PM Share4 Tweet Email By Ryan Bailey 23 Comments http://the42.ie/3113051 PARIS SAINT-GERMAIN’S Edinson Cavani paid an emotional tribute to the victims of the Chapecoense air disaster last night, but one of football’s most frustrating rules meant he was booked for the celebration.Uruguay international Cavani was on target in a 2-0 win over Angers on Wednesday to reach the landmark of 100th for the club as Unai Emery’s side closed to within a point of leaders Nice in the French top flight.Cavani then unveiled a t-shirt paying tribute to the victims of the air crash in Cerro Gordo, Colombia that claimed 71 lives including the majority of the first-team squad from Brazilian club Chapecoense.The white t-shirt had a hand-drawn logo of the Brazilian club and the word ‘Fuerza’ or strength written underneath. He also pointed both hands to the sky in an emotional moment.But, rules are rules and referee Frank Schneider, despite telling Cavani it was a lovely gesture, had to follow the letter of the law and show him a yellow card.“There are many things, a lot of emotions today,” Cavani told reporters.“I spoke to the referee in English, he said it was a nice gesture,” he said. Source: Michel Euler Source: Michel Euler“But it’s normal, we don’t have the right to show messages, to remove the jersey. I understand, I know it’s like that. The most important is the message. The yellow card is not a problem.”Thiago Silva was also on target on a tough night for PSG’s Brazilian contingent.“It is very difficult,” said Lucas Moura. “I had friends there [on the plane], friends who helped me at the beginning of my career.“It’s sad when something like this happens. There is not much to say. It should make us better – we have to take care of our families, our friends, because sometimes we focus on things that are not worth it. Source: Michel Euler“Today we are here, maybe not tomorrow. That is why we must give everything for the people we love. And do good things.”Brazilian-born Italy international Thiago Motta also offered his thoughts on the tragedy, having played alongside Cleber Santana at Atletico Madrid. The 35-year-old Chapecoense captain died in the crash.“We are sad for victims, families and friends,” Motta said. “Personally I knew Cleber Santana, we played together in Spain.“We must think about the families and how help these families. It is the most important thing.”– First published 10.13The42 is on Instagram! Tap the button below on your phone to follow us! Edinson Cavani was booked for paying an emotional tribute to Chapecoense last night It was a difficult night for PSG and their Brazilian contingent. Dec 1st 2016, 12:00 PM 21,588 Views Cavani points to the sky after scoring his 100th PSG goal. Short URL Follow us: the42.ie
Facebook Twitter: @NeosKosmos Instagram Moo Gourmet Burger’s Adam Gerondis, will be just one of the 200 CEO’s taking part in the inaugural CEO CookOff. The CEO CookOff is a bold and exciting initiative that will bring together CEO’s and over 20 celebrity chefs from Australia’s top kitchens to cook and provide a meal for 1000 disadvantaged Australians. The aim of the event is to raise both awareness and significant funds for Australia’s food rescue charity, OzHarvest and Mission Australia. “[Moo Gourmet Burgers] have supported OzHarvest in the past when we have over ordered for big event days, so I try to keep in touch with what they are doing,” said Gerondis. He told Neos Kosmos his aim in the event was to “raise awareness of food wastage and how it can be better managed or at least put to good use”. As the CEO of Moo Gourmet Burgers in Sydney, he is no stranger to fundraising for charity. All Moo Gourmet Burger restaurants donate 50 cents of every little cow meal direct to the Starlight Children’s Foundation. So far they have donated in excess of $4000.00. This event will highlight the challenges facing disadvantaged Australians in the area of food security and homelessness and will give participants an extraordinary opportunity to challenge their culinary skills and networking whilst having a great time giving back to the community. The CEO CookOff will take place Monday 6 February, at Cathedral Square in Sydney. For more information or to donate visit ceocookoff.com.au
(WSVN) – Dozens of Cuban migrants were stopped at sea over the weekend.The Coast Guard intercepted a small boat Sunday, about 23 miles north of Havana.Thirty-six men and women on the boat were rescued and brought to safety.One passenger was airlifted to the hospital because of chest pains.The migrants were given food, shelter and a medical evaluation before being returned to Cuba.Copyright 2019 Sunbeam Television Corp. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
Across the U.S., 2,800 dedicated teachers were considered and carefully narrowed down to 25 outstanding semifinalistsPhilip MerrillGRAMMYs Oct 10, 2018 – 2:53 pm On Oct. 10 the Recording Academy and GRAMMY Museum proudly announced the 25 semifinalists for the 2019 Music Educator Award, champions of music education nominated by grateful students and parents. Full-time public and private teachers from all 50 states received a total of 2,800 nominations via www.grammymusicteacher.com, and the one winner will be announced during GRAMMY Week.”Music and the arts should be a part of every child’s education,” said 2018 MEA honoree Melissa Salguero, while receiving her award at the 2018 GRAMMY Salute To Music Legends. The following champions of musical creativity in education, representing 16 states, make that goal a reality every day and are now in semifinal consideration for next year’s honor:2019 Music Educator Award SemifinalistsMichael Antmann, Freedom High School, Clermont, Fla.Jeff Ball, The Grand Street Campus High Schools, Brooklyn, N.Y.Deanna Bell, Vestavia Hills Elementary East, Irondale, Ala.Jeremy Bradstreet, Dublin Coffman High School, Dublin, OhioJohn Burn, Homestead High School, San Jose, Calif.Victor de los Santos, Santa Ana High School, Santa Ana, Calif.David Dehner, Cornerstone Christian Schools, San Antonio, TexasElizabeth Hering, Churchill High School, Canton, Mich.Paul Holzen, Parkway Central Middle School, Dardenne Prairie, Mo.Brandi Jason, Liberty High School, Sykesville, Md.Gary Meggs, Arkansas High School, Texarkana, Ark.Henry Miller, Sierra Vista Middle School, Lake Forest, Calif.Brian Querry, Charles A. Huston Middle School, North Apollo, Pa.Michael Raiber, Oklahoma City University, Norman, Okla.Amy Rangel, Glendale High School, Burbank, Calif.Jeffery Redding, West Orange High School, Orlando, Fla.Joshua Shaw, Coronado High School, Lubbock, TexasScott Sheehan, Hollidaysburg Area Senior High School, Hollidaysburg, Pa.Mickey Smith Jr., Maplewood Middle School, Sulphur, La.Craig Snyder, Penncrest High School, Garnet Valley, Pa.Sarah Todd, Mary Lyon Elementary School, Chicago, Ill.Matthew Trevino, Roan Forest Elementary, San Antonio, TexasHelen Walker, Doby’s Mill Elementary, Camden, S.C.John Weatherspoon, Lake Worth Community High School, West Palm Beach, Fla.Heath Wolf, Farmington Junior High, Kaysville, UtahFrom this list, 10 will advance to consideration as finalists, announced this December. The remaining 15 semifinalists will receive an honorarium of $500 and their schools will receive matching grants thanks to the generosity and support of the GRAMMY Museum’s Education Champion Ford Motor Company Fund. Outreach for this program has been assisted by the American Choral Directors Association, National Association for Music Education, NAMM Foundation, and National Education Association.The recipient of the sixth annual honor will be flown to Los Angeles to participate in GRAMMY Week festivities and attend the upcoming 61st Annual GRAMMY Awards on Feb. 10, 2019, in addition to receiving an honorarium and matching school grant. The remaining nine finalists will receive an honorarium of $1,000 and their schools will receive matching grants. While the selection is competitive, the Music Educator Award shines its light on all educators who “made a significant and lasting contribution to the field of music education and who demonstrate a commitment to the broader cause of maintaining music education in the schools.”Nominate Your Favorite Music Teacher For The 2020 Music Educator AwardRead more News Education Champions: 2019 Music Educator Award Semifinalists Announced Email 2019 Music Educator Award Semifinalists Announced education-champions-2019-music-educator-award-semifinalists-announced Twitter Facebook
Tourists watch brown bears at Brooks Falls. (Photo by Mitch Borden, KMXT – Kodiak)Bristol Bay has seen a lot of salmon return to the region during the summer sockeye runs in the past few years. This hasn’t just been good for commercial fishermen — it’s also been good for bears.Listen nowAlong the Alaska Peninsula, around the Brooks River near its famous waterfalls in Katmai National Park, more bears are appearing and more cubs are surviving. This made one researcher ask whether there is a direct link between the size of Bristol Bay’s salmon runs and the number of bears returning to the river each summer.Tourists from all over come to Brooks Falls in Katmai National Park to watch some of the best fishermen in the world face down the hordes of sockeye surging upstream. The bears are quite a sight, and there are so many here because it’s the easiest place around for them to get a quick bite.Leslie Skora compares the Brooks River to being the biggest store in a town“Brooks River is not the only grocery store around, but it’s the most well supplied,” Skora said.Skora is a wildlife biologist for the National Park Service at Brooks Camp studying bears. She says the salmon are so easy to catch at the falls because it’s a bottleneck; thousands of fish get backed up as they try to jump up about four feet to continue to their spawning grounds. This makes it easier for bears to catch all the salmon they need, and for people to study them.Since 2001, researchers have kept track of how many individual brown bears come to the stream annually to fish. Around 40 bears return on a yearly basis, but recently there’s been a spike in those numbers.“We have been experiencing a boom of young bear sub-adults or newly emancipated independent bears,” Skora said.Usually these young bears would scatter far and wide once they separate from their mothers, but Skora says around 10 sub-adults showed up this summer. Young bears are more likely to make contact with people, and these sub-adults are causing some trouble around the park.For the first time in over two decades, bears have made contact with humans near the falls. In both incidents, young bears approached individuals and pawed at them. No one was hurt and they were considered minor encounters, but it does raise a question: why are these new bears here?“The past several years have been a higher productivity for females with cubs. So we have just seen more cubs in previous years and greater survival of the cubs that have been around,” Skora said. “So now it is just that pulse of that age generation coming up.”The number of bears that show up every summer does fluctuate. In 2013, when Skora first started working near Brooks Falls, it was one of the lowest turnouts ever recorded. She remembers tourists coming up and asking ‘where are all the bears?’This got Skora thinking. She started examining what determines how many bears come to the river every summer. She does this by tallying how many bears appear annually and “then look(s) at the number of salmon that have been jumping just at Brooks Falls.”Skora said she then “compares if those numbers have created a correlation in the number of cubs we’ve seen or the survival of cubs or adult bears.”If there is more salmon, Skora thinks that could mean more bears, while fewer fish would mean fewer bears. Bristol Bay’s large salmon returns over the last few years and the spike in young bears around the Brooks River could support this hypothesis, but nothing is certain yet.Skora has been working on the project for over a year. Besides the amount of salmon in the river, she is also interested in seeing if the river’s water level affects how many fish bears catch and if the amount of tourists visiting the falls impacts the bears at all. Her research requires hours of just watching bears. It can get a little tedious at times, especially when she’s sitting out in the rain all day. But it can also be like binge-watching T.V.“Sometimes it is addicting, sometimes you just want to watch the soap opera drama unfold,” Skora said.Back at the falls, Skora’s enthusiasm for watching bears is shared by a lot of people. Tia Roberts made her way from L.A. and can’t get over being so close to the predators while they snap jumping salmon out of the air.“It never gets tiring. It is so thrilling to be able to watch anything in the wild in their own natural habitat watching their behavior,” Roberts said. “It is so… It is so thrilling.”Skora hopes to wrap up her research on Brooks Falls within the next year and move on to a larger part of her study that will look at factors affecting brown bear behavior and survival across Katmai National Park.
Lucknow, Aug 5: Samajwadi Party (SP) President Akhilesh Yadav has announced state-wide protests on August 9 to highlight the deteriorating law and order situation in Uttar Pradesh. The SP president said that protests will coincide with the Kranti Diwas which is marked annually on August 9. The party’s national spokesperson Rajendra Chaudhary said: “There is a complete ‘jungle raj’ in the state. In every district, there has been a spurt in the crime graph. SP workers are being targeted in every district. BJP leaders are giving patronage to criminal elements in the state.” Also Read – NRC in Assam to be released: list to finalize if a person is Indian or Foreigner Advertise With Us The Samajwadis have demanded shifting of the Unnao’s woman rape accused MLA Kuldeep Singh Sengar to a jail outside Uttar Pradesh, allocation of land to tribals of Umbha village in Sonebhadra district and entering their names in revenue records. The list of demands also include the setting up of a fast track court for the trial of the accused in the Sonebhadra massacre case. Also Read – Subramanian Swamy cross-examined in National Herald case Advertise With Us The state-wide protests will also demand stopping of the victimization of party MP Mohd Azam Khan and MLA Abdullah Azam. Akhilesh Yadav said: “In the tenure of the Yogi Adityanath government, there have been 729 cases of murder, 803 of rape, 799 of loot, 60 of dacoity and 2,500 incidents of abduction across the state. ‘Jungle raj’ is prevailing in the state. If the arbitrary attitude of the BJP government is not stopped, then the state will succumb to anarchy.” He added that all the MPs, MLAs, office-bearers and workers of the party will take out processions and stage sit-ins at the collectorate before handing over a 25-point memorandum to the district authorities.
Share Red, White and Blue show hosts examine the state of school safety in Texas. Discussion topics include violence prevention in regard to spotting mental-health “red flags,” gun safety laws, school security, and more. With guests Haley Carter, Chair of the Mayor’s Commission Against Gun Violence; Texas State Senator Larry Taylor (District 11); and Paul Cordova, Houston Independent School District Chief of Police. Original air date: September 14, 2018.Watch more episodes of Red White and Blue
Fans love drawing One Punch Man fanart, and with the newest season of the anime series around the corner, it’s a great time to start flooding the internet with it once more. A new piece of artwork recently began making the rounds online, featuring two characters from One Punch Man staring each other down: Saitama on one side, with the Hero Association’s Tatsumaki on the other.It seems like just an innocent fanart work at first, but that’s before you realize it’s actually an awesome throwback to a classic image pulled straight from the Dragon Ball Z manga. If you remember, it was originally Goku and Frieza, with Goku looking down at the diminutive Frieza, because he may be short in stature, but he’s super powerful. At least, he was. ‘One Punch Man’ Get A Video Game, Probably Has More Punches11 Manga Series That Should Never Be Live Action Movies Let us know what you like about Geek by taking our survey. Stay on target これも発掘された。 pic.twitter.com/zCsVv5y8ot— SSSS.半田修平㌠ (@ebisu1984) August 6, 2018With their similarities, it’s no surprise fans took the iconic shonen series Dragon Ball Z and crossed it over with One Punch Man, because they’re both action-packed epics with plenty of fans waiting to hear more about absolutely anything related to the series.In the meantime, check out the latest One Punch Man clip advertising the release of Season 2. It’s finally happening, guys, and we can’t wait to check it out. The explosive second part of the series is coming in April 2019, and it’s going to give us more Saitama, more Hero Association, and plenty of other awesome stuff that’s going to give us more of what we’ve been waiting for this whole time. One Punch Man is finally back, baby!What part of the show’s comeback are you most looking forward to? Is there a particular fight or scene you can’t wait to see animated? You’ve only got a short amount of time to get caught up, so make sure you hurry and do so before the new season gets underway.We finally got a release date for Season Two. But it’s still a ways off so we have to keep busy with mash-up until then, like when Saitama fought the Hulk or when one of the lead animators took on the MegaMan tribute. All you One Punch Man and other beloved anime updates can be found here.
Most computers today store memory electronically, by maintaining a certain voltage. In contrast, a new kind of memory that stores data thermally, by maintaining temperature, is being investigated by researchers Lei Wang of the National University of Singapore and the Renmin University of China, and Baowen Li of the National University of Singapore and the NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering. Citation: Scientists Propose Thermal Memory to Store Data (2009, January 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-scientists-thermal-memory.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In recent years, thermal research has improved scientists’ understanding of heat conduction on a molecular level. Scientists have created theoretical models of some thermal devices, including a thermal transistor and logic gate, both by Wang and Li in 2006 and 2007, respectively. This kind of work has opened the doors to the new subject of “phononics” – the science and engineering of processing information with heat. In the current study, Wang and Li take the field of phononics one step further and show the feasibility of a thermal memory that can store data with heat. The scientists predict that such a heat memory could be experimentally realized in the foreseeable future with rapidly advancing nanotechnology. Their work is published in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.As Wang and Li explain, any thermally insulated system might be a candidate for thermal memory since it maintains its temperature (data) for a long time. Still, any system will face the challenge of unavoidable perturbation when the temperature is measured (when the data is read). Due to energy exchange between the thermometer and the system, the system won’t be able to naturally recover its original temperature after the data reading. To solve this problem, the researchers suggest using a thermal circuit capable of producing two steady states, which is connected to a power supply from an external heat bath.Wang and Li’s thermal memory consists of a single particle sandwiched between two lattice segments, each consisting of about 50 atoms. These left and right segments are connected to heat baths at different fixed temperatures, and the central particle is connected to a control heat bath that can be set to “on” or “off.” The particle’s chosen state can remain unchanged for a long time even after the heat bath is removed. The particle and the segments are also weakly coupled together by harmonic springs. This memory system, the researchers explain, can perform a complete write-read process. The “writer” is made of a lattice of about 10 particles, connected to the central particle by a linear spring. The other end of the writer is connected to a heat bath. Depending on the supply from the heat bath, the writer can either cool the particle to the off state or heat it to the on state. To read the data, a thermometer (made of the same lattice as the writer) is connected to the central particle. Unlike the writer, the reader is not connected to a heat bath, but is set to a temperature between the on and off states. If the particle is in the on (hot) state, the reader will heat up; if the particle is off (cool), the reader cools down. Of course, the particle’s temperature will also change when exposed to the medium-temperature reader. But the heat baths connected to the left and right segments will either absorb the particle’s excess heat or warm the particle, so that the particle recovers its original temperature (and state) in either case.The researchers calculated that, when the writer is removed, the system can maintain its state for a relatively long time, although an ideal thermal memory is impossible due to thermal fluctuations. However, by refreshing the data (similar to how voltage data is regularly refreshed in dynamic random access memory [DRAM]), thermal memory can achieve a lifetime long enough for practical applications. The scientists also noted that the lifetime can be extended further by combining identical memories together.By theoretically demonstrating the possibility of a thermal memory that is self-recoverable after being read by a thermometer, Wang and Li hope that computers will one day reap the benefits of thermal technology.More information: Wang, Lei and Li, Baowen. “Thermal Memory: A Storage of Phononic Information.” Physical Review Letters 101, 267203 (2008).© 2009 PhysOrg.com Controlling heat and particle currents in nanodevices by quantum observation