This article introduces a DALI 2.0 slave software stack for XMC 1000 microcontrollers. This stack was developed by Infineon in close cooperation with Xenerqi and accelerates design of LED lighting applications. By Marcelo Williams Silva and Georg Huba, Infineon Technologies Download PDF version of this articleAmongst other things, the XMC 1000 microcontroller family with ARM-Cortex-M0 offers optimised peripherals and functionalities for smart lighting control. This makes it possible to address a host of different applications both indoors and in commercial buildings. It is within this environment that DALI (Digital Addressable Lighting Interface) has established itself as a standardised interface for controlling lighting control gear. With DALI 2.0, interoperability between components from different manufacturers has been further improved, whilst the integration of sensors significantly extends the possibilities for smart lighting applications. Infineon has partnered with Xenerqi to develop a DALI 2.0 certified slave software stack for its XMC 1000 microcontrollers. This significantly reduces development time and costs.Figure 2. Block diagram of the XMC 1000 microcontroller unit Smart lighting solutions extend conventional LED lighting with new functionalities such as wired and wireless connectivity, programmability, sensors, improved lighting quality and intelligent colour mixing. With special peripherals and functionalities, XMC microcontrollers are predestined for numerous modern LED lighting systems. For instance, automatic dimming and colour control for multi-channel LEDs is supported. In addition to the LED control, the MCUs of the 1200, 1300 and 1400 series can also handle DALI or DMX communication. Furthermore, the XMC microcontrollers can be used to implement the power supply for the LED driver, supporting all standard two-stage switched-mode power supply topologies.Figure 3. The BCCU (Brightness and Colour Control Unit) facilitates flicker-free dimming and colour control of LEDs with virtually no processor load. The key features of the XMC 1000 family for smart lighting systems are: automatic brightness control (based on high-frequency pulse modulation), flicker-free dimming via 9 output channels, automatic exponential dimming and linear intensity changes for natural, eye-friendly brightness and colour changes, high-speed integrated analog comparators for current control, and closely coupled peripheral functions for various digital power conversions.The introduction of the LED into all areas of lighting technology has led to extensive changes in the control of lights. What was once controlled in the past with phase dimmers or an analog 1…10V interface is now digitally connected. The most popular standardised interface DALI – originally designed for dimming fluorescent lamps – has established itself as the standard for lighting design, driven by the success of LED lights. With DALI 2.0, interoperability has been further enhanced, whilst the integration of sensors opens up new possibilities for smart lighting applications.The XMC1000 family with the ARM Cortex M0 core is available in the XMC1100, XMC1200, XMC1300 and XMC1400 series with flash versions up to 200 KB and enclosures with up to 64 pins. Even the entry-level XMC1100 series, with its basic feature set, provides many industrial applications with cost-effective access to the 32-bit world with 12-bit AD converters and powerful 16-bit timers of Capture/Compare Unit 4 (CCU4). The XMC1200 series includes additional application-specific features such as a peripheral unit for capacitive touch applications and for the control of LED displays (LEDTS), high-speed analog comparators and an innovative Brightness and Colour Control Unit (BCCU). The BCCU permits flicker-free dimming and colour control of LEDs with virtually no processor load. What is more, versions are available for the extended temperature range from -40 °C up to 105 °C. Last but not least, the XMC1300 series is specifically designed for motor control and digital power conversion applications. In addition to a particularly powerful Capture/Compare Unit 8 (CCU8) with two compare channels and asymmetric PWM functionality and a position interface (POSIF) for precise detection of the motor position, it also offers a mathematical coprocessor. The latter permits efficient sensorless FOC (field-oriented control) solutions for electric motors. The XMC1300 series also offers variants for the temperature range up to 105 °C. In addition to the features of the XMC1200/1300 series, the XMC1400 derivatives offer up to four serial channels (control of 4-channel LEDs), significantly increased processing power (more than 70 percent) and enhanced connectivity (e.g. CAN).The XMC1200, XMC1300 and XMC1400 series feature the innovative BCCU unit mentioned already. The basic function of the BCCU consists in automatically providing dimming signals at the port connections for external LED drivers. The BCCU is designed for automatically controlling the dimming and the colours of multi-channel LED lamps with minimal code input. One development goal was the flicker-free display. However, not every change in luminance is perceived by the observer as flicker. The corresponding threshold of perceptibility is frequency-dependent and has been determined empirically. These findings have gone into the design of the BCCU. A key feature is the automatic high-frequency brightness modulation (PDM with 12-bit resolution). This generates an individual bitstream for each of the nine channels in total. The high frequency produces a high resolution for the brightness value and/or the colour value in RGB applications. This permits a flicker-free display, whilst supporting a wide range of different LED drivers and/or high-performance LEDs.The BCCU integrates three dimming engines. These facilitate the exponential change in brightness. The exponential dimming and linear change in intensity make the dimming steps and colour changes appear totally natural to the human eye. The three dimming engines can be assigned to any of the nine channels. This means it is possible, for example, to control three RGB lights or one street light with up to nine LED strings. The BCCU also provides trigger signals for the A/D converter. This in turn permits synchronised measurement of currents in multiple LED strings, for example.The linear walker plays an important role in the colour change of RGB lamps. This adjusts the frequency of the bitstream for each channel so that, starting from colour X, the target point of colour Y in the colour space for each of the three channels (red, green, blue) is reached at the same time within a predetermined time. The colour transition is considerably more pleasant and natural to the human eye with this method. In addition, no complex software algorithms are required.Figure 4. DALI 2.0 extends the IEC 62386 with Part 103 (control devices). New device types from the field of sensors, such as buttons, light sensors, motion sensors and remote-control interfaces, are now defined in the standard. DALI is probably the most common interface for lighting control with regard to the light. Products for numerous applications (multi-function lights, multi-channel lights, emergency lights, etc) are available today from a wide range of manufacturers. All these devices are standardised and classified in the DALI standard IEC 62386.102. The different device types (device types 0-8) are defined in the standard parts 201 to 209. For example, device type 6 specifically describes LED control gear, and device type 1 the characteristics of DALI emergency lighting devices. Data communication, parameter sets and topology are also defined in IEC62386.DALI 2 is designed to close gaps in the original standard and allow for better interoperability. Originally describing only control gear and general communication, DALI 2 opens the world of sensor technology to manufacturers and users. IEC 62386 has therefore been extended with Part 103 (control devices). New device types from the field of sensors, such as buttons, light sensors, motion sensors and remote control interfaces, are now defined in the standard.In its first version, DALI works according to the pure master-slave principle, which limits extensive sensor functions. DALI 2 makes it possible to communicate control commands and operating data for light operating devices as well as sensor functions across manufacturers. With DALI 2, 64 light operating devices and 64 sensor control devices can be operated together in one line. Building automation systems can also process the sensor information and optimise it with other data, such as heating/ventilation/air conditioning. Central maintenance functions can monitor lamp status, power consumption, or switching cycles, and depict these functions visually in the form of statistics.DALI 2 also laid the foundation for far-reaching interoperability. For the first time, a standardised operating device is not only controlled according to the master-slave principle, but also event-controlled communication between the application controller and the control device is possible. Backward compatibility with DALI 1 installations is also ensured. To ensure full compatibility, it is necessary to test against the standard.Figure 5. DALI 2.0 software stack for the XMC1000 family The DALI 2 standard (IEC 62386 Part 101/102 – Edition 2.0 2014-11) improves the predictability of gear control. With this in mind, Xenerqi and Infineon have developed a DALI 2 software stack for the XMC1000 family, and the software has been certified for Xenerqi LED drivers and Infineon XMC LED current control explorer kit. With the certified stack and the XMC single-chip solution for DALI 2.0 users can almost halve the development time and also save costs. The DALI 2.0 control gear stack is designed for integration into a host application that provides a solution for DALI 2.0 control gear with one or more DALI controls. The corresponding instances are defined in accordance with IEC 62386-101: 2014 (Ed2.0), Section 3.16. as devices that are connected to the bus and receive commands to drive at least one output directly or indirectly. The stack implements all DALI 2.0 protocols for gear control. This includes the following functions: processing of all DALI commands from the DALI bus, monitoring for all corresponding error conditions on the DALI bus, processing of the corresponding light output for gear control with timing and sequence fade conditions, processing of configuration changes requested by the DALI controllers via the bus interface, DALI short address assignment, including assignment of random addresses in coordination with the DALI controllers, and management of delays and other timing conditions in relation to DALI operations.The DALI 2.0 slave stack is not a stand-alone solution. The stack and its associated library provide the core functionality and software components needed to develop a DALI 2.0 control. Application developers must therefore configure the stack and its components according to their specific control solution. The stack supports all functions as specified in the general requirements for DALI 2.0 control gear. However, the stack only implements the functionalities that apply across all control devices. Application-specific DALI functionality for control gear, especially the hardware-dependent functions, must be implemented via the host application. This also applies to optional DALI 2.0 control functions. In addition, the stack defines callback functions that it uses for the interface and management of the application-specific functions.Figure 6. The DALI 2.0 software stack has been certified for the XMC LED current control board. Software development for the XMC microcontrollers can be performed in two ways – either via the standard peripheral library (XMC Lib) or via DAVE apps. Although using the XMC Lib means working on a low level of abstraction, the full functionality of the peripherals can be used flexibly. However, some hardware know-how is required. In addition, compilers from third-party providers can be used. With the DAVE apps, you develop on a higher level of abstraction and use specific application examples. Consequently, no detailed hardware knowledge is necessary. The use of DAVE Version 4 is the requirement here. The free development platform includes all necessary tools like GNU compiler, debugger and data visualisation. In addition, DAVE apps are available for a variety of applications as well as LED lamp control. Infineon also offers several LED evaluation boards for the XMC1000 family. The already-mentioned XMC LED current control board features a 15W DC/DC buck controller, a DALI PHY and extensive documentation. The DALI 2.0 stack is certified for this board. DALI 2.0 design examples are in preparation. In addition, other RGB/LED kits (with DALI and DMX Phy) are available with a standard LED driver as well as an RGB / LED Arduino lighting shield.Share this:TwitterFacebookLinkedInMoreRedditTumblrPinterestWhatsAppSkypePocketTelegram Tags: Chips & Components, Tools & Software Continue Reading Previous The rise of edge computingNext Enhanced reliability and performance in motor control encoder applications
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Liverpool ace Shaqiri surprised by Arsenal scorelineby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool ace Xherdan Shaqiri admits the 5-1 hammering of Arsenal surprised him.The victory lifted Liverpool nine points clear at the top of the Premier League as Jürgen Klopp’s side increased their unbeaten start to 20 matches.Next up is a massive meeting with Manchester City on Thursday night – and Shaqiri insisted the Reds have to block out any external noise to retain their momentum.“Expectations are always high,” said the Switzerland international.“But we want to stay focused, we have to stay focused and work hard every day. There’s a long way to go. At the moment we’re really happy and I hope we can keep going like this.“We are very happy to win this game. That high a result I didn’t expect – it was important to win. Obviously we had a really good game and we are very happy at the moment.”On his own form, Shaqiri added: “You can see on the pitch I have a lot of confidence at the moment.“I wanted to play from the beginning so I was very happy to play and have an impact on the game, helping my teammates to win the game. I’m very happy at the moment.”
TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say INSIDER: Real Madrid fancy De Bruyne as Hazard alternativeby Carlos Volcano9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveReal Madrid are planning a move for Manchester City attacker Kevin de Bruyne.Okdiario’s chief pundit Eduardo Inda, speaking on El Chiringuito, has revealed Real have De Bruyne under consideration as an alternative to Chelsea ace Eden Hazard.And adding to the story, Inda says Real intend to use Isco as a makeweight in negotiations.He said, “Madrid are going to try to put Isco in the operation for Hazard or in a possible operation with De Bruyne. “In the Bernabéu they say that he is not to be sold. “(But) the hard core of the locker room is not with Isco because they consider that he is loose and out of shape. In addition, they have seen the rudeness to the coach, although they liked it when he asked for forgiveness. “Real Madrid now wants to keep things in house because it knows that he is an asset of the club and his price can drop if it affects public opinion.”
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Hodgson warns Crystal Palace fans of daunting fixture runby Paul Vegas18 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveRoy Hodgson says Crystal Palace must stay realistic ahead of a daunting fixture run.The Eagles are sixth on the Premier League table heading into the international thanks to Saturday’s win over West Ham United.They will face Manchester City, Arsenal, Leicester City and Chelsea in their next four games.”Things will change,” Hodgson said. “I still fully believe in a championship being a marathon race. It’s nice to start reasonably well and be up with the front runners, but you know you’ve got to keep up that pace and one of the things we don’t have is a big squad.”But if we can keep our heads above water and get to January I hope we can do something about that.”
Chelsea duo Kovacic, Ampadu substituted in Croatia-Wales stalemateby Freddie Taylor12 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveChelsea duo Mateo Kovacic and Ethan Ampadu were both substituted in Wales and Croatia’s 1-1 stalemate on Sunday.Tottenham’s Ben Davies went through the back of Kovacic right on the stroke of half-time, with the midfielder not returning after the break.Three minutes into the second half Bruno Petkovic clattered into Ampadu from behind, with Ampadu quickly being replaced by Joe Merrell.Gareth Bale’s goal cancelled out Nikola Vlasic’s ninth minute opener, keeping Wales’ hopes of qualification for Euro2020 alive. About the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say
TagsLoan MarketAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Monaco coach Jardim delighted with form of Leicester striker Slimaniby Paul Vegas4 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveAS Monaco coach Leonardo Jardim admits he’s delighted with the form of Islam Slimani.The striker is on-loan at ASM from Leicester City this season.And Jardim is excited by his new-look partnership of Slimani and Wissam Ben Yedder – both of whom struck in the 3-2 defeat of Rennes.”Ben Yedder-Slimani? It’s a beautiful wedding. One is strength, power and depth. “The other is the technical finesse coupled with a great sense of purpose,” enthused Jardim.
zoom The 165,960 dwt containership MSC Clorinda is hindering traffic in the Suez Canal as the vessel stopped in the waterway due to undetermined issues, according to Wilhelmsen Ships Service.According to a spokesperson from Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC), the containership reported a machinery transmission malfunction and subsequently grounded around 05:00 UTC on January 4. It was then cleared and afloat again by around 08:10 UTC.“MSC Clorinda is now ready to resume passage and will be doing so imminently, once other vessel traffic has cleared,” the spokesperson added.At the time of the incident, MSC Clorinda was transiting Northbound through the canal.Traffic in both Southbound and Northbound convoys is obstructed and the Southbound convoy which has already entered the canal will be required to drop anchor and wait at the Great Bitter Lake until the issue is resolved, WSS said.WSS added that Suez Canal Authority tugs are already alongside the vessel.According to AIS data provide by MarineTraffic, the 2012-built containership is still stopped off Egypt’s Al Saiyid Abu Hatab region.
See more NFL predictions See more college football predictions College Football All newsletters Oh, and don’t forgetWes, you ham We’re launching a sports newsletter. 🏆 Join the squad. Subscribe See more NBA predictions Things That Caught My EyeFive years is kind of a hard capMarvin Lewis was head coach of the Cincinnati Bengals for 15 years and never managed to win a Super Bowl. Reality is, coach-quarterback combos that work tend to be the ones that click early. Every coach/starting quarterback combination who won a Super Bowl did so within their first five seasons of working together. [FiveThirtyEight]Yeah I had a nasty case of the “Vegas Flu” once and learned I probably shouldn’t play roulette anymoreThe Las Vegas Golden Knights are doing really well, and here’s one theory as to why their opponents appear off their game: They play hockey in Las Vegas, a fun place with booze and gambling and late nights on the town before hockey games. “Hockey flus” have historically spread in certain cities, be they “Roxy Flu” in Vancouver thanks to the Roxy club, or “Philadelphia Flu” because the team was a bit punchier than a typical squad. Vegas has played seven teams this season that as of Tuesday appear playoff bound, and all those good teams lost in Vegas. House always wins. [ESPN]Fiesta Bowl pivots to OverwatchThere’s a groundswell of colleges and universities fielding competitive esports teams, and Thursday the Fiesta Bowl organization announced they’ll be partnering up with Blizzard Entertainment, the company behind Overwatch, to put on the Fiesta Bowl Overwatch Collegiate National Championships in February. It’s the first time a collegiate bowl organization and a games publisher have collaborated, and comes just as the Overwatch League, a competitive league with the backing of several NFL owners, is about to kick off. [ESPN]40 bowls, each slightly betterThis year there are 40 collegiate football bowls, the first season of bowl contraction since 1995, thanks to the Poinsettia Bowl folding. Yes, this year has what an analysis of Elo scores indicates is the worst bowl matchup in the past 30 years, Georgia State vs. Western Kentucky. But overall, quality is up based on the average matchup Elo score compare to last year, which had some rough bowls. [FiveThirtyEight]Try out our fun new interactive, Which World Cup Team Should You Root For?Slash & burnScoring is up in the NHL this season, but it’s not the fault of the goalies. A number of rule changes — including higher enforcement of slashing penalties — means an average of 3.3 power plays per game, which kickstarts scoring opportunities and plausibly scoring. [FiveThirtyEight]Figure skating in DetroitA program spun off from Figure Skating in Harlem offers ice skates, uniforms, coaching and instruction to girls who commit to practicing two hours a day four days a week and maintaining a B average or higher in the city of Detroit. For a sport that can cost into the tens of thousands for high-level instruction, the program — which seeks to recruit 300 girls by year end 2018 — is trying to be an on-ramp for those who aren’t born into affluence. [The Undefeated]Make sure to try your hand at our fun NFL can you beat the FiveThirtyEight predictions? game!Big Number0.69 first downs per target with GronkRob Gronkowski gives the Patriots offense a massive kickstart. When Gronkowski is off the field, the team this season notched 72 receptions, 771 yards, 100 targets and 0.32 first downs per target. When Gronk was on the field — even if he’s not the one getting the ball, just if he’s there and needing to be covered — the team notched 277 receptions, 3,429 yards, 400 targets and 0.69 first downs per target. [FiveThirtyEight]Leaks from Slack: kyle:College basketball rankings: OU’s Trae Young has stats better than Steph Curry’scbs going hardneil::fire: :fire: :fire: :fire:In fairness, these numbers are pretty insanePredictions NFL NBA
OSU redshirt senior Johnni DiJulius competes in a match against Nebraska on Jan. 17.Credit: Courtesy of OSUThe last dual meet of the season has arrived for the Ohio State wrestling team, and all eyes will be on how the Buckeyes handle their last opponent on the regular-season schedule.No. 10 OSU (9-3, 6-2) returns to Columbus after a three-week stint of away meets, where it is set to face Wisconsin (2-6, 1-4) on Friday at 7 p.m. After a grueling and taxing matchup with No. 1 Penn State last Friday, which resulted in a 24-14 loss, the Buckeyes will be looking to end on a high note against the Badgers. The two teams did not meet last year during the season, but Wisconsin picked up the victory in their last bout with OSU. The all-time series has the Badgers ahead 29-19-1.Despite the Badgers’ rough 2015-16 campaign, OSU coach Tom Ryan said he has the utmost respect for the program.Not only does this match mark the last regular-season dual meet of the year for the Buckeyes, but also the final time nine seniors will share that experience.Although the team will be back in Columbus to host a National Wrestling Coaches Association National Duals Championships Series match, the outgoing seniors will be honored against Wisconsin for their careers at OSU.Notable seniors who will be honored are Kenny Courts, Mark Martin, Hunter Stieber and Johnni DiJulius.“Obviously it means a lot but it’s more like a shocker,” DiJulius said. “I’m in disbelief because I’m a senior. When I was a freshman watching senior night, I thought to myself I had all the time in the world, but it goes by so quick.”Courts, Stieber and DiJulius all began their journey as freshman in 2011, and will get to round out their careers together on the mat. Ryan isn’t as worried about the box score for his outgoing wrestlers against Wisconsin as much as his is about the Buckeyes giving it their all. “In any sport, we get so caught up in winning and losing, and that can be so stifling,” Ryan said. “You do not control winning and losing. You control effort.”Effort has been a point of emphasis for Ryan and the team for years.There is a strong sense of respect held by the OSU coaching staff and wrestlers toward a program like Wisconsin’s. “(Wisconsin) is a fully funded Big Ten team, with great tradition there,” Ryan said. “They’ve got a great head coach in Barry (Davis). He was an Olympian.”Wisconsin brings in two ranked wrestlers with No. 7 Ryan Taylor at 133 pounds and No. 3 Isaac Jordan at 165 pounds. The match at 165 pounds will be watched for more than just a bout between two wrestlers with the top five nationally. It will also be watched for the family matchup. Redshirt sophomore Bo Jordan will be facing his cousin from Wisconsin at 165. The two met last season in the Big Ten championships, where Isaac Jordan earned a 3-2 victory. “The big one is at (165 pounds),” Ryan said. “Not only are they ranked two and three in the country, but they’re first cousins. That adds an element you don’t want to seep into it.” Ryan was referring to the extra emotional implication of a match between family. He also cited that in order for Bo Jordan to succeed, he must focus solely on wrestling, and not who he stares down before the opening whistle.DiJulius will be facing the other ranked opponent on Wisconsin’s roster in Taylor. He said he wants to use a quality opponent like Taylor to correct some wrongs from this season.“I just want to make sure I’m wrestling the way I want to wrestle at the national tournament,” DiJulius said. “This season I haven’t done a great job at winning the third period and scoring enough points in the third.”Wisconsin nearly emerged with an upset in its previous match against now-No. 18 Minnesota but dropped the dual meet 17-16. Against Wisconsin, all the starters from the team are expected to make an appearance. “We will have a full lineup against Wisconsin for the first time (this season),” Ryan said.Big venues aheadThe settings for the Big Ten and NCAA championships will be memorable environments, as the Buckeyes are slated to travel to Carver-Hawkeye Arena and Madison Square Garden, respectively. After the rowdy, sold-out Bryce Jordan Center in its previous match, Ryan said OSU feels prepared for crowds that will flock to Iowa City, Iowa, and New York City.“The environment is going to be every bit as crazy as it was at Penn State,” Ryan said.Carver-Hawkeye Arena holds more than 15,000 people, while Madison Square Garden holds over 18,000.After WisconsinAt the conclusion of the next match, OSU will get ready to play host to an NCWA National Duals match. The pairing will be announced on Sunday, as well as the time.
Nice try, Tiger.That “press release” apology was less than amusing and far from convincing.Sure, you admit that you are a disappointment, but you are more than a disappointment; you are a disgrace.You apologized to your fans, co-workers and the millions of children who look up to you, but they do not accept.Your foundation provided hope and education to millions of children, children who no longer look to you as a role model, but as a failure. They will no longer cheer for you or support you.We no longer have to question who you are. The media has exposed the true you.You have the audacity to blame the media for the explosive controversy concerning your affairs. The media is not at fault, though. You are.I’m sorry the media is following your children to school and stalking your wife. You should have considered how the ramifications of your actions would affect your family. You exposed your family to the public eye and it is your job to protect them, not the media’s. You claim that your wife does not deserve blame, but deserves praise. I agree. By no means are your extramarital affairs her fault, and on the same note she deserves more than praise. She deserves respect. Who deemed you worthy of playing by these “different rules”?You claim that you deserve to enjoy temptations because of money and fame. What you deserve is a one-bedroom apartment just big enough for you to write child support checks from. Your repeated irresponsibility has proven that you have blatant disregard for your wife, children, mother and friends, not to mention your sponsors and loyal fans. Instead of convincing yourself that the rules do not apply to you, try convincing yourself that one day your children will be old enough to understand this, with the hope that they forgive you. You put your needs above the needs of your family, and for that they may never forgive you.The shame you have brought to your family will fade but will never disappear. Take another good long look at yourself. I hope you see that your lying and cheating has earned you nothing but disgust. Making amends? We just hope you don’t repeat those mistakes.You say it is not what you achieve, it’s what you overcome. You have achieved a lot, but you sure as hell have a lot to overcome.You are correct. When setting an example, character and decency are what really count. Your character will forever be tarnished and you have shown you have no decency.Go back to your Buddhist ways. Stop following every impulse and restrain instead. An indefinite leave of absence from golf is the understatement of the year. You can’t possibly be considering playing in the Masters in April, let alone at all this year. It doesn’t matter how great of a player you are; you have single-handedly destroyed your character and furthermore your career. Do us all a favor and retire from golf all together. You have wasted more skill than any other one person. You bring nothing to the game but shame.If you want your family, fans and the media to make room in our hearts to believe you, make your apology concrete.As hard as it may be to express sincere regret in a press conference apology, the true testament to your apology with be followed by your actions. That is why I’d like to see you remove yourself from the golf course long enough to prove to your wife that you love her and are committed to fixing your family. Endless therapy is a good start, but spend every waking moment with your family. Show your wife that she is more important than therapy, golf and other women. The public may one day believe that you are truly sorry, but by no means will we cheer for you again.